Exploring the Main Blockchains: A Beginner’s Guide

Understanding the Concept of Blockchain

Before diving into the main blockchains that are shaping the digital world, it is essential to understand what blockchain technology is. In its simplest form, a blockchain is a distributed ledger—a decentralized database that is shared and synchronized across multiple sites, institutions, or geographies. Each ‘block’ in the chain contains a number of transactions; every time a new transaction is made, a record of that transaction is added to every participant’s ledger. This technology underpins various cryptocurrencies and has potential applications in numerous other fields, such as supply chain management, voting systems, and identity verification.

The Foundational Blockchain: Bitcoin

Bitcoin is the original cryptocurrency and its underlying blockchain is the first and most well-known example of blockchain technology in action. Created by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin was designed as a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. The Bitcoin blockchain is a public ledger that records all transactions made with Bitcoin. It uses a proof-of-work system to secure the network and verify transactions. This process, known as mining, involves confirming transactions and adding them to the blockchain through a rigorous consensus algorithm.

Ethereum: More than a Cryptocurrency

Ethereum, proposed in late 2013 by programmer Vitalik Buterin, is another major blockchain platform. Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum is not just a digital currency. Instead, it is a decentralized platform that enables developers to build and deploy smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps). Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. Ethereum’s blockchain is highly versatile and has facilitated the creation of numerous ERC-20 tokens, as well as the advent of decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs).

Bridging Different Blockchains: Polkadot and Cosmos


Polkadot is an innovative blockchain protocol designed to enable different blockchains to transfer messages and value in a trust-free fashion; sharing their unique features while pooling their security. Founded by Dr. Gavin Wood, one of the Ethereum co-founders, Polkadot introduces the concept of a ‘relay chain’ where different ‘parachains’ can interact. This approach facilitates a high degree of interoperability and scalability, aiming to create a fully decentralized web where users have control over their own data.


Cosmos is another player in the blockchain interoperability space. It is dubbed as the ‘Internet of Blockchains.’ Cosmos aims to create a network of blockchains that can communicate with each other in a decentralized way. It employs a consistent Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol to enable data exchange among different blockchains. This facilitates the development of a wide range of applications and allows for various blockchains to scale and interoperate with each other.

Focusing on Security: Cardano

Cardano is a third-generation blockchain that puts a strong emphasis on security through a layered architecture. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach. Cardano’s development team includes a large global collective of expert engineers and researchers, and the platform has gone through a rigorous peer-review process. The blockchain uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm called Ouroboros, designed to reduce energy expenditure during the mining process relative to proof-of-work models like that of Bitcoin.

Private and Consortium Blockchains: Hyperledger and R3 Corda


Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open-source blockchains and related tools started by the Linux Foundation. It mainly focuses on ledgers designed to support global business transactions, including major technological, financial, and supply chain companies. Hyperledger doesn’t support a cryptocurrency and is intended for enterprise solutions that require the distributed ledger technology in private or permissioned business networks.

R3 Corda

R3 Corda is another example of a blockchain designed for the business world. It is a private blockchain platform that enables businesses to transact directly and in strict privacy using smart contracts, reducing transaction and record-keeping costs, and streamlining business operations. Unlike traditional blockchains, Corda does not broadcast transactional content to the entire network. Instead, it is designed to share transactional data only with entities that have a legitimate need to know.


The rapid evolution of blockchain technology has given rise to a diverse ecosystem of platforms, each designed with specific objectives and target applications. From the pioneering Bitcoin blockchain to the sophisticated and multifaceted platforms like Ethereum, Polkadot, and Cardano, the landscape is ripe with innovation. Meanwhile, private and consortium blockchains like Hyperledger and R3 Corda cater to the unique needs of businesses. For newcomers looking to explore the world of blockchains, understanding the foundational principles and the main players is crucial for appreciating the potential of this transformative technology.

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